From James Hamilton's new book of biblical theology - God's Glory in Salvation through Judgment:

"Yahweh is the most significant thing about the Ten Commandments. When he gives voice to the inauguration of this covenant, the first thing he does is announce his own identity: 'I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery' (Ex. 20:2).

  • No gods before him.
  • No carved images of him.
  • No misuse of his name.
  • No work on the day he hallowed and blessed.

"These first four commandments obviously pertain to Yahweh, but perhaps the centrality of Yahweh to the last six commandments is less apparent - on the surface, anyway. These commands come with Yahweh's authority. They reflect the way that he has created the world. They are to be obeyed because he has spoken them, because he created this world by his word, because this world is made to work according to his word (cf. James 2:11).

  • Fathers and mothers are to be honored because God is a Father to his people, and God is to be honored (Ex. 4:22-23; Eph. 3:14-15)
  • No murder because God alone gives life (Deut. 32:39), and people are in God's image (Gen. 1:27; 9:6).
  • No adultery because God made man male and female, that the two might become one flesh (Gen. 2:23-24; Matt. 19:4-5).
  • No theft because God makes poor and rich (1 Sam. 2:7).
  • No false witness because GOd does not lie (Num. 23:19).
  • No coveting because God alone is to satisfy, and at his right hand there are pleasures evermore (Ps. 16:11).

"The authority and majesty and identity of Yahweh are central to all ten of the commandments, and 'moral action is inseparably bound up with the worship of God.'"

God's Glory in Salvation through Judgment99.