President Washington declared a National Day of Prayer, as did President John Adams when France threatened war, President Madison during the War of 1812, President Tyler when the previous president died, and President Taylor during a cholera epidemic. President Buchanan proclaimed a Day of Prayer to avert civil strife, as did President Lincoln during the Civil War, President Johnson when Lincoln was shot and President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. In 1952, President Truman made the National Day of Prayer an annual event, stating: "In times of national crisis when we are striving to strengthen the foundations of peace...we stand in special need of Divine support." President Reagan made it the first Thursday in May, stating: "Americans in every generation have turned to their Maker in prayer...We have acknowledged both our dependence on Almighty God and the help He offers us as individuals and as a Nation...Now, Therefore, I, Ronald Reagan, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim MAY 5, 1988, as a National Day of Prayer. I call upon the citizens of our great Nation to gather together on that day in homes and places of worship to pray."