The Legend of Robin Hood speaks of Richard the Lionheart. The real King Richard the Lionheart, so named for his courage in battle, joined the Third Crusade in 1190AD to win back Jerusalem from the Muslims, who had first taken it away from the Byzantine Christian and Jewish inhabitants in 638AD after a two year bloody siege led by Caliph Umar. Though Richard the Lionheart did not retake Jerusalem, he arranged a truce with Saladin for the protection of religious pilgrims. On his return trip to England, Richard was captured by a rival king in Austria and spent three years in prison. He was eventually found and purchased back with an enormous "king's ransom." Richard returned to England and took back the throne from his brother John. Just five years later Richard died in battle and John again ruled oppressively in England. The angry barons responded by capturing London and, on JUNE 15, 1215, surrounded King John on the plains of Runnymeade, forcing him to sign the Magna Carta. This was the first time in history that the arbitrary powers of a king were limited. The Magna Carta ends with the words: "for the salvation of our souls, and the souls of all our...heirs, and unto the honor of God."