"FREEDOM IS NOT FREE" is the inscription on the Korean War Memorial in Washington, D.C. The Korean War ended JULY 27, 1953, with the armistice signed at Panmunjom. Begun three years earlier as a UN "police" action, the outnumber U.S. troops fought courageously against the Communist Chinese and North Korean troops, who were supplied with arms and MIG fighters from the Soviet Union. With temperatures sometimes forty degrees below zero, and Washington politicians limiting the use of air power against the Communists, there were nearly 140,000 American casualties in the defense of the Pusan Perimeter and Taego; in the landing at Inchon and the freeing of Seoul; in the capture of Pyongyang; in the Yalu River where nearly a million Communist Chinese soldiers invaded; in the Battles of Changjin Reservoir, Old Baldy, White Horse Mountain, Heartbreak Ridge, Pork Chop Hill, T-Bone Hill, and Siberia Hill. First Lady Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower stated in a conversation at the Doud home regarding their son John, who was serving in Korea: "He has a mission to fulfill and God will see to it that nothing will happen to him till he fulfills it."