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Regis Nicoll Christian Blog and Commentary

The Witness of Jesus: Man, Myth or Messiah?

"...the mystery of God, namely, Christ, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge."
(Colossians 2:2-3)


Two thousand years ago, Jesus challenged his disciples with, “Who do you say that I am?” It was a haunting question because the possible answers were few. His contemporaries accused him of being a deluded babbler, knowing fraud or demon-possessed lackey. Some accepted him as a great moral teacher, and a few, the Lord he claimed to be. Today, the expanse of intervening time has led some to another conclusion.

In an open online exchange, I used a version of C.S. Lewis’ Liar, Lunatic, Lord trilemma to establish the divinity of Jesus. One participant countered, “That’s well and fine, but for the fact that there is no reliable record that Jesus actually lived.”

“Come again?”

“Jesus goes completely under the radar of the Roman records, the Palestinian historians—everyone!”

He was referring to the “Jesus myth”—a claim that the Jesus of the Bible never existed. Although it has charmed skeptics since it was originally trotted out in the 19th century, today no reputable scholar supports the Jesus myth, for several reasons:

  • First, there are the extra-biblical references to Jesus by Josephus, Tacitus, Pliny, and Suetonious—men who weren’t particularly inclined toward this messianic figure or His fringe following.
  • Next, there is the emergence of a Christian community within the living memory of Jesus’ contemporaries. Modern naysayers would have us accept that this community endured persecution for a fictitious character whose existence could have been checked out from any number of surviving eyewitnesses.
  • Finally, there is the historical record of the Bible itself: Namely, that Jesus was a Jew who lived in first-century Palestine; He was executed on the order of Pontius Pilate; and after His death His disciples began saying He had risen from the dead.

Consequently, even some not-so-sympathetic authorities dismiss the myth theory. For instance, atheist and historian Michael Grant cedes, "Modern critical methods fail to support the Christ-myth theory. . . . It has again and again been answered and annihilated by first-rank scholars."

Considering the remaining options, the one that best fits the facts is the one reached by the apostle Thomas: "My Lord and my God!"

Saul of Tarsus, a Jewish zealot and Christian persecutor, came to the same conclusion on a dusty trail to Damascus. He eventually described Jesus as “the image of the invisible God,” in whom “all the fullness of the Godhead resides in bodily form.”

The earthly invasion of Jesus—the “Incarnate Word”—was an event that all of history had built up to.


In the period prior to the Incarnation, mankind was aware of three things: a spiritual realm that was pure and unchanging; a material world that was corrupt and fleeting; and the infinite gulf between them. Therein lay a problem.

For pre-Christian people, God was a distant and impersonal deity whose true identity and desires were largely unknowable. Anxious about relying on personal guesswork to forge the divine divide, people looked to enlightened go-betweens. The proliferation of temples, priests, and priestesses over the ages was a response to man’s felt need for mediation.

When the Incarnate Word broke into history, He was unlike all the mediators that had gone before. They were human; He was human and divine. He was the perfect bridge over the gaping chasm between the earthly and the heavenly—a priest who not only intercedes for man, but who reveals God to man. As the apostle John wrote, “No one has ever seen God, but God the One and Only, who is at the Father's side, has made him known” (John 1:18).

Of all places, it was in a cave that the “One and Only” first made him known.


Caves were shelters for animals, lepers, and refugees. Darkness, and the threats of disease and physical danger, made them undesirable habitats for all but those on the margins.

The cave was also a metaphor for the material world—the impermanent, corrupted “shadow” of reality, a thing to be despised. If man was to learn the true nature of things, he must turn his attention from the cave to the heavens—the pure and unchanging realm of Being.

In time, a Persian coterie left the cave and followed the heavens until they landed on the outskirts of Bethlehem. There, G. K. Chesterton notes, they came upon a cave cut into the side of a hill, where a young mother was caring for her newborn.

Never could they have imagined what lay at their journey’s end: a refuge for outcasts, where an impoverished couple was attending a suckling infant, wrapped in strips of cloth, and resting in a feeding trough.

Neither could they have processed the reality before their eyes: “A child who was a father and a mother who was a child.” Yet, in some inexplicable way, they sensed that, in this humble scene, Truth was not outside the cave but inside it. For those who had been studying the matter, the time for “God with us” had come and with that, a divine statement about the world had been made.

Although spoiled by the effects of sin, the material world is not a loathsome object corrupted beyond repair. It is a creation loved by its Creator who entered, by way of a cave, in the flesh and form of a human infant to restore it and make himself known.


Through his healing touch, comforting words, and heart-piercing stories, Jesus revealed God to people restless for transcendence. Teaching moments were reinforced by life example:

  • He, who taught the greatness of servanthood, left the head of the table to take up the towel and basin.
  • He, who taught his disciples to pray, withdrew to a mountainside, a garden, and quiet places to talk with the Father.
  • He, who taught his followers to take up their cross, took up his on the Golgothan hill.
  • He, who on another hill taught the crowd to love their enemies, pleaded for his, “Father, forgive them.”

From the cave to the cross, Jesus modeled his greatest commandment; “As I have loved you, so you must love.” (John 13:34-35) Enduring the panorama of our misery, Jesus experienced temptation, pain, and rejection beyond human comprehension, before laying down his life that we might enjoy eternal fellowship with him.

The Incarnate Word is evidence that God not only exists and loves us, but identifies with us. When asked, “When did we see you, Lord,” he will reply, “When I was hungry, naked, sick . . . ” Jesus is evidence that God identifies with cave-dwellers.

A cave also marks the other end of his life. It was the site of something so startling, it shook a group of seasoned soldiers to their core.


After Jesus’ body was removed from the cross, Joseph of Arimathea laid it in a tomb cut out of rock. As an infant, Mary had swathed his wriggling body in strips of linen. Now Joseph wrapped his lifeless corpse in a cloth loaded with spices.

The next morning when the women visited the tomb, they found a highly-disciplined Roman detachment rattled to the point of paralysis. Maybe it was the earthquake, or the spectral figure that rolled back the stone sealing the entrance. Or maybe it was what Peter and John saw after they stooped to peer inside.

It has been oft-claimed that the resurrection of Jesus rests on the empty tomb; it does not. An empty tomb could be dismissed as the result of theft, or of returning to the wrong tomb. This tomb was not empty; it held something that established the resurrection beyond all rational argument.

On the slab were burial wrappings that no longer contained a body. The grave clothes were not littered about the tomb willy-nilly; they were altogether, in a piece, conformed in the shape of a human body, but collapsed, like a cocoon whose contents had vaporized and oozed out through its fibers.

To men who had not understood that their leader must die, much less rise from the dead, the sight of the crumpled “chrysalis” was a faith-galvanizing moment. It prompted reflection on all they had been taught, including the ultimate revelation of their Master,

“Because I live, you also will live. On that day you will realize that I am in the Father, and you are in me, and I am in you” (John 14:19-20).