Hereby have we perceived love, that he had lain down his life for us; therefore we ought also to lay down our lives for the brethren. . . . Let not your body faint. . . . If the pain be above your strength, remember, Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, I will give it you. And pray to our Father in that name, and he will ease your pain, or shorten it. . . . Amen.63

Filling Up the Afflictions of Christ
Copyright 2009 by John Piper 
Published by Crossway Books, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers 
1300 Crescent Street Wheaton, Illinois 60187

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher, except as provided for by USA copyright law.

1 David Daniell, William Tyndale: A Biography (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 217. 
2 For example, in More's 1529 book Dialogue Concerning Heresies. 
3 Daniell, Tyndale, p. 4. 
4 Thomas More wrote vastly more to condemn Tyndale than Tyndale wrote in defense. After one book called An Answer unto Sir Thomas More's Dialogue (1531), Tyndale was done. For Thomas More, however, there were "close on three quarters of a million words against Tyndale . . . [compared to] Tyndale's eighty thousand in his Answer." Ibid., p. 277. 
5 Ibid., p. 216. 
6 Ibid. 
7 William Tyndale, Selected Writings, edited with an introduction by David Daniell (New York: Routledge, 2003), p. ix. "Modern champions of the Catholic position like to support a view of the Reformation, that it was entirely a political imposition by a ruthless minority in power against both the traditions and the wishes of the pious people of England. . . . The energy which affected every human life in northern Europe, however, came from a different place. It was not the result of political imposition. It came from the discovery of the Word of God as originally written . . . in the language of the people. Moreover, it could be read and understood, without censorship by the Church or mediation through the Church. . . . Such reading produced a totally different view of everyday Christianity: the weekly, daily, even hourly ceremonies so lovingly catalogued by some Catholic revisionists are not there; purgatory is not there; there is no aural confession and penance. Two supports of the Church's wealth and power collapsed. Instead there was simply individual faith in Christ the Saviour, found in Scripture. That and only that ‘justified' the sinner, whose root failings were now in the face of God, not the bishops or the pope." Daniell, Tyndale, p. 58. 
8 Daniell, Tyndale, p. 79.
9 "Not for nothing did William Tyndale, exiled in Cologne, Worms and Antwerp use the international trade routes of the cloth merchants to get his books into England, smuggled in bales of cloth." Ibid., p. 15. 
10 Ibid., p. 188. 
11 Ibid., p. 316. 
12 "In the summer of 1382, Wyclif was attacked in a sermon preached at St. Mary's, Oxford, and his followers were for the first time denounced as ‘Lollards'—a loose and suitably meaningless term of abuse (‘mutterers') current in the Low Countries for Bible students, and thus heretics." David Daniell, The Bible in English: Its History and Influence (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003), p. 73.
13 Gutenberg's printing press came in 1450. 
14 "Tyndale transmitted an English strength which is the opposite of Latin, seen in the difference between ‘high' and ‘elevated', ‘gift' and ‘donation', ‘many' and ‘multitudinous.'" Daniell, Tyndale, p. 3. 
15 Tyndale did not follow Luther in putting Hebrews, James, Jude, and Revelation in a special section of the New Testament set apart as inferior. "Tyndale, as shown later by his preface to James in his 1534 New Testament, is not only wiser and more generous—he is more true to the New Testament." Ibid., p. 120. 
16 This is available in print with all its original notes and introductions: Tyndale's Old Testament, trans. William Tyndale (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992). Also available is Tyndale's New Testament, trans. William Tyndale (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989). 
17 How could it be that Tyndale was martyred in 1536 for translating the Bible into English, and that his New Testament could be burned in London by Bishop Tunstall, and yet an entire printed Bible, essentially Tyndale's, The Great Bible, could be published in England three years later officially endorsed by this Bible-burning bishop? Daniell explains: "Tunstall, whose name would shortly appear on the title pages approving two editions of the Great Bible, was playing politics, being a puppet of the Pope through Wolsey and the king, betraying his Christian humanist learning at the direction of the church, needing to be receiving [Thomas] Wolsey's favor. . . . To burn God's word for politics was to Tyndale barbarous." Daniell, Tyndale, p. 93. 
18 Tyndale, Selected Writings, p. xi. 
19 Tyndale, p. 1. Daniell speaks with more precision elsewhere and says that the Authorized Version is 83 percent Tyndale's (Tyndale, Selected Writings, p. vii). Brian Moynahan, God's Bestseller: William Tyndale, Thomas More, and the Writing of the English Bible—A Story of Martyrdom and Betrayal (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2002), p. 1, confirms this with his estimates: Tyndale's words "account for 84 percent of the [King James Version] New Testament and 75.8 percent of the Old Testament books that he translated." Daniell also points out how remarkable the Old Testament translations were: "These opening chapters of Genesis are the first translations—not just the first printed, but the first translations—from Hebrew into English. This needs to be emphasized. Not only was the Hebrew language only known in England in 1529 and 1530 by, at the most, a tiny handful of scholars in Oxford and Cambridge, and quite possibly by none; that there was a language called Hebrew at all, or that it had any connection whatsoever with the Bible, would have been news to most of the ordinary population." Tyndale, p. 287.
20 "Wept bitterly" is still used by almost all modern translations (NIV, NASB, ESV, NKJV). It has not been improved on for five hundred years in spite of weak efforts like one recent translation: "cried hard." Unlike that phrase, "the rhythm of his two words carries the experience." Tyndale, Selected Writings, p. xv. 
21 Daniell, Tyndale, p. 142. 
22 Ibid., p. 2. 
23 Ibid., p. 116. 
24 Tyndale, Selected Writings, p. xv. 
25 Daniell, Tyndale, p. 121. "Tyndale gave the nation a Bible language that was English in words, word-order and lilt. He invented some words (for example, ‘scapegoat') and the great Oxford English Dictionary has mis-attributed, and thus also mis-dated a number of his first uses." Ibid., p. 3. 
26 "Tyndale could hardly have missed De copia." Daniell, Tyndale, p. 43. This book went through 150 additions by 1572. 
27 Ibid., p. 42. 
28 Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), p. 13. 
29 "Tyndale as conscious craftsman has been not just neglected, but denied: yet the evidence of the book that follows makes it beyond challenge that he used, as a master, the skill in the selection and arrangement of words which he partly learned at school and university, and partly developed from pioneering work by Erasmus." Daniell, Tyndale, p. 2. 
30 Ibid., p. 67. 
31 Erasmus' book was titled On the Freedom of the Will, and Luther's was The Bondage of the Will
32 Tyndale, Selected Writings, p. 39. 
33 Ibid., p. 37. 
34 Ibid., p. 40. 
35 Daniell, Tyndale, pp. 68-69.
36 Ibid., p. 254. 
37 Ibid., pp. 69-70. 
38 See, for example, John Piper, Contending for Our All: Defending the Truth and Treasuring Christ in the Lives of Athanasius, John Owen, and J. Gresham Machen (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2006), p. 45. 
39 "Central to Tyndale's insistence on the need for the Scriptures in English was his grasp that Paul had to be understood in relation to each reader's salvation, and he needed there, above all, to be clear." Daniell, Tyndale, p. 139. 
40 Tyndale, Selected Writings, p. 40. 
41 Here is Tyndale's definition of the "gospel" that rings with exuberant joy: "Evangelion (that we call the gospel) is a Greek word and signifieth good, merry, glad and joyful tidings, that maketh a man's heart glad and maketh him sing, dance, and leap for joy. . . . [This gospel is] all of Christ the right David, how that he hath fought with sin, with death, and the devil, and overcome them: whereby all men that were in bondage to sin, wounded with death, overcome of the devil are without their own merits or deservings loosed, justified, restored to life and saved, brought to liberty and reconciled unto the favor of God and set at one with him again: which tidings as many as believe laud, praise and thank God, are glad, sing and dance for joy." Ibid., p. 33. 
42 Ibid., p. 37. 
43 "Tyndale was more than a mildly theological thinker. He is at last being understood as, theologically as well as linguistically, well ahead of his time. For him, as several decades later for Calvin (and in the 20th century Karl Barth) the overriding message of the New Testament is the sovereignty of God. Everything is contained in that. It must never, as he wrote, be lost from sight. . . . Tyndale, we are now being shown, was original and new—except that he was also old, demonstrating the understanding of God as revealed in the whole New Testament. For Tyndale, God is, above all, sovereign, active in the individual and in history. He is the one as he put it, in whom alone is found salvation and flourishing." Ibid., pp. viii-ix. 
44 Ibid., p. 38. 
45 Daniell, Tyndale, pp. 156-157. 
46 See note 12. 
47 Moynahan, God's Bestseller, p. xxii. 
48 William Tyndale, The Obedience of A Christian Man, edited with an introduction by David Daniell (London: Penguin Books, 2000), p. 202. 
49 Moynahan, God's Bestseller, p. 260. 
50 Ibid., p. 261. 
51 The list and details are given in Daniell, Tyndale, pp. 183-184. 
52 Ibid., pp. 192-193. 
53 Ibid., p. 149. 
54 Ibid., p. 213. 
55 Ibid., p. 361. 
56 Ibid., p. 364. 
57 Ibid., p. 365.
58 Ibid., p. 379.
59 Ibid., pp. 382-383. "Contemporaries noted no such words, however, only that the strangling was bungled and that he suffered terribly." Moynahan, God's Bestseller, p. 377.
60 Tyndale, The Obedience of a Christian Man, p. 6.
61 Ibid., p. 8.
62 Ibid., p. 6.
63 From Foxe's Book of Martyrs.