~ Dr. Peterson is professor of systematic theology at Covenant Theological Seminary

~ Dr. Chris Morgan is professor of theology and associate dean of the School of Christian Ministries at California Baptist University

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1 Cornelius Plantinga , Jr., Not the Way It's Supposed to Be: A Breviary of Sin (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995), 2.
2 Henri Blocher, Original Sin: Illuminating the Riddle. New Studies in Biblical Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997), 56.
3 Carson, How Long, O Lord?, 42.
4 This is not to suggest that particular instances of suffering can be or should be traced back to particular sins. In some cases, that is possible, but in other instances it is unfounded. The point is that all suffering results from Adam's sin.
5 Pyne, Humanity and Sin, 160.
6 Michael D. Williams, Far as the Curse Is Found: The Covenant Story of Redemption (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2005), 64.
7 For more on this theme, see William Edgar's essay on oppression on pages XYZ of this volume.
8 It is important to coordinate the emphasis on the intrusion of suffering with a robust view of God's sovereignty. The Fall does not fall outside God's design for history.
9 Anthony A. Hoekema, Created in God's Image (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986), 130-31.
10 Hoekema, Created in God's Image, 131.
11 Ibid.
12 Collins, Genesis 1-4, 172.
13 Plantinga , Not the Way It's Supposed to Be, 123.
14 Not everything about sin is mysterious, however, and sometimes theologians too quickly appeal to mystery. For a helpful response to such approaches, see Blocher, Original Sin, 107-9.
15 Carl F. H. Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority (Wac Word, 1976-83; reprint, Wheaton: Crossway, 1999), 6:302.
16 After Job raises this and other questions to God, God turns the tables and poses the question back to Job (see Job 38:1-41:34), asking essentially: Do you know enough to run the world? Do you really believe you have some insights to offer me on how to guide history? Job learned that God's providence is good, sovereign, wise, and mysterious.
17 See Erickson, Christian Theology, 387-432.
18 Pyne, Humanity and Sin, 203.