More U.S. Teen Girls Are Victims of Suicide Than Thought
Jim Liebelt Jim Liebelt's Blog
- 2019 Sep 23
*The following is excerpted from an online article posted on HealthDay.
The gender gap in teen suicide is smaller than previously estimated, with more girls dying by suicide each year, a new study contends.
Suicide death rates among 10- to 19-year-old girls have been systematically underestimated, while rates among boys have been overestimated, according to the report published in JAMA Network Open.
Experts have pegged the male-to-female gender gap in suicide among teens at 3-to-1, but it's really closer to 2-to-1, researchers said.
"The reduced gender gap in suicide is a surprise," said lead researcher Dr. Bin Yu, a doctoral student in epidemiology at the University of Florida. "It is really important that we not underestimate the risk of suicide among girls."
The new model found that suicide deaths among U.S. teens have risen continuously during the past decade, and at a more rapid rate than reflected in earlier estimates, researchers said.
Conventional methods of estimating annual suicide death rates are flawed, Yu said, because they don't take into account the generational risks associated with suicide.
To develop the best possible estimate, Yu and co-author Dr. Xinguang Chen from the UF College of Medicine created a model that combines three factors: a person's age, the year of their birth, and the year in which they died by suicide.
This new way of estimating suicide rates pegged the death rate among boys at 4.9 per 100,000 in 1999 and 8.7 per 100,000 in 2017. Previous estimates placed boys' rates at 7.4 in 1999 and 10.7 in 2017.
Using the new model, suicide rates among girls were 1.7 per 100,000 in 1999 and 4.2 in 2017, compared with earlier estimates of 1.6 in 1999 and 3.5 in 2017.
"The persistent suicide increase we see without a tendency to slow down underscores the need for increased effort at all levels for youth suicide prevention, with a further strengthening of suicide prevention interventions aimed at girls," Yu said.
The new rate model supports other recent studies that have found an increase in suicide among teens, particularly among girls, said Dr. Igor Galynker, director of the Suicide Research and Prevention Laboratory at Mount Sinai in New York City.
"Not only is the suicide rate increasing in the United States, the increase in suicide rate is increasing," he said.
The teenage suicide rate rose roughly 3% a year up to 2014, but since then, it has increased by an average 10% a year, said Galynker, who wasn't part of the new study.
While this new study did not examine possible reasons for the increase, Yu noted that teens born after 1995 have been more heavily exposed to social media and have grown up during the ongoing U.S. opioid epidemic.
Galynker said teens' screen use and the amount of time they spend with social media have both been linked to increased suicide risk.