- 2018Oct 22
*The following is excerpted from an online article posted on HealthDay.
For middle school students, witnessing school violence can be as bad as being bullied, new research suggests.
An international team of researchers found that young witnesses face many of the same challenges later on as those who are direct victims of campus violence. Notably, eighth-grade witnesses are at higher risk for social and academic problems by the time they're high school sophomores.
"It is clear that approaches to prevention and intervention should include witnesses as well victims and perpetrators and target all forms of school violence," said study leader Michel Janosz. He's director of the School of Psycho-Education at the University of Montreal.
Janosz said supportive family and community relationships help young people cope after they're exposed to these traumatic events. "These also prevent emotional desensitization to violence which also contributes to aggressive behavior in youth," he said in a university news release.
The study involved nearly 4,000 students in Quebec. The researchers wanted to know how witnessing violence at age 13 affected their social and academic behavior. The study looked at students' use of drugs, delinquency and school performance, as well as their emotional well-being two years later.
The researchers also compared the long-term effects of witnessing violence with those experiencing violence directly.
The study, published recently in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, found most students had observed violence at school.
Those who had seen physical assaults or someone carrying weapons in the eighth grade had a higher risk of drug use and delinquency later on, the study found. The same was also true for those who had witnessed thefts and vandalism, which the researchers described as hidden or veiled violence.
In addition, exposure to less serious acts such as threats and insults was associated with increased drug use, social anxiety, symptoms of depression and less involvement at school, the researchers noted. But only an association rather than a cause-and-effect link was observed.
Study co-author Linda Pagani is also a professor at the School of Psycho-Education. "There were several take-home messages. First, witnessing school violence in Grade 8 predicted later impairment at Grade 10. Second, bystander effects were very similar to being victimized by violence directly," she said in the news release.
- 2018Oct 19
Trending Today on Twitter - 10/19/18
6. Nick Clegg
7. Summer Walker
9. Joel Fitzgerald
10. USS Ronald Regan
Trending Today on Google - 10/19/18
4. Power Ball winning numbers
5. Boban Marjanovic
6. Miranda Cosgrove
7. Stanford football
8. Britney Spears
9. Karlie Kloss
10. Kristen Bell
iTunes Top 10 Singles - 10/19/18
1. Shallow - Lady Gaga & Bradley Cooper
2. Sunflower (Spider-Man) - Post Malone & Swae Lee
3. Always Remember Us This Way - Lady Gaga
4. Happier - Marshmello & Bastille
5. Without Me - Halsey
6. High Hopes - Panic! At the Disco
7. Natural - Imagine Dragons
8. Youngblood - 5 Seconds of Summer
9. MIA (feat. Drake) - Bad Bunny
10. when the party's over - Billie Eilish
Top 10 TV (Broadcast) Shows - Week Ending 10/14/18
1. Sunday Night Football
2. Thursday Night Football
3. The Big Bang Theory
5. 60 Minutes
6. Young Sheldon
7. Football Night in America Part 3
8. The Voice - Mon.
9. The Voice - Tues.
Source: Nielsen Co.
Trending Today on YouTube - Today - 10/19/18
1. Inside the Mind of Jake Paul
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4. Can You Guess Which Part of Cardi B's Body Her Baby Broke?
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Top 5 Movies - Last Weekend
2. A Star Is Born
3. First Man
4. Goosebumps 2: Haunted Halloween
Source: Rotten Tomatoes
- 2018Oct 18
*The following is excerpted from an online article posted on Bloomberg.
An increasing number of births happen outside of marriage, signaling cultural and economic shifts that are here to stay, according to a new report from the United Nations.
Forty percent of all births in the U.S. now occur outside of wedlock, up from 10 percent in 1970, according to an annual report released on Wednesday by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the largest international provider of sexual and reproductive health services. That number is even higher in the European Union.
The EU likely sees more births out of wedlock because many member countries have welfare systems that support gender-balanced child care, said Michael Hermann, UNFPA's senior adviser on economics and demography, in an interview. Public health care systems, paid paternal leave, early education programs and tax incentives give unwed parents support beyond what a partner can provide.
The data show such births in the U.S. and EU are predominantly to unmarried couples living together rather than to single mothers, the report says. The data suggest that societal and religious norms about marriage, childbearing and women in the workforce have changed, said Kelly Jones, the director for the Center on the Economics of Reproductive Health at the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
Jones also noted that the rise in births outside of marriage is closely correlated to delays in childbearing. “Women are claiming their ground professionally,” she said. “Delaying motherhood is a rational decision when you consider the impact it can have on your career, and that’s contributing to this trend.”
The average age an American woman has her first child is now 27, up from 22 in 1970. As the marriage rate has fallen in the U.S.—and those who do tie the knot do so later in life—the number of adults in cohabiting relationships has steadily risen. This shift is most evident among those under age 35, who represent half of all cohabiting couples, however the rise in cohabitation is occurring across all age demographics.
The traditional progression of Western life “has been reversed,” said John Santelli, a professor in population, family health and pediatrics at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health. “Cohabiting partners are having children before getting married. That’s a long-term trend across developing nations.”