Walking Between the Testaments with Daniel

 

We have just finished our study of the last 12 books of the Old Testament. In that study we found the people of the Lord fluctuating between listening and refusing to listen to the Prophets of God. Then comes the Intertestamental Period, the 400 years between Malachi and Matthew. Many call this the “silent period” however, it is far from silent. The Word of God maps out the events of the entire period in advance. A study of this period provides a fascinating insight into the world of the Bible. Powerful lessons showing the weaknesses of God's people when they take their eyes off the Lord and His Word. The Jews were triumphant as they kept the Word. Defeated when they lost sight of the Word. We would do well to remember the lessons these centuries provided. Some of the valuable insights from this period beyond the practical warnings are: the development of the four main religious groups of Christ’s day (Essenes, Pharisees, Sadducees and Zealots), an insight into the life and times of Joseph and Mary’s world, Simeon and Anna’a world, Elizabeth and Zacharius’ world and so on. Additionally, the Apocrypha and the conclusion of Nehemiah, Ezra and Malachi’s ministry is clearly recorded. And finally, we can see the fulfillment of the most explicit and detailed of all the Old Testament prophecies. Our next step in understanding this period is to lock these 400 years into the Scriptures. To do this turn with me to Daniel 11.

 

History in Daniel 11

 

1.      Daniel 11:3 Themighty king” is none other than Alexander the Great (336-323).

2.      Daniel 11:4 The “four winds” correspond to Daniel 7:4-7 ("four heads").

3.      Daniel 11:5 The “king of the South” from history is Ptolemy I Soter (323-285 B.C.) of Egypt.

one of his commanders. Seleucus I Nicator (311-280).

his own kingdom. Initially Babylonia, to which he then added extensive territories both east and west.

4.      Daniel 11:6 The “daughter of the king of the South” is Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 B.C.) of Egypt.

king of the North. Antiochus 11 Theos (261-246) of Syria.

alliance. A treaty cemented by the marriage of Berenice to Antiochus.

she will not retain her power, and he ... will not last. Antiochus's former wife, Laodice, conspired to have Berenice and Antiochus put to death.

her father. Berenice's father Ptolemy died at about the same time.

5.      Daniel 11:7 One from her family line. Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-221 B.C.) of Egypt, who did away with Laodice.

king of the North. Seleucus 11 Callinicus (246-226 B.C.) of Syria.

his fortress. Either (1) Seleucia (see Ac 13:4), which was the port of Antioch, or (2) Antioch itself.

6.      Daniel 11:8 their gods. Images of Syrian deities, and also of Egyptian gods that the Persian Cambyses had carried off after conquering Egypt in 525 B.C.

7.      Daniel 11:10 His sons. Seleucus III Ceraunus (226-223B.C.) and Antiochus III (the Great) (223-187), sons of Seleucus II.

his fortress. Ptolemy's fortress at Raphia in southern Palestine. 11:11 king of the South. Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-203 B.C.) of Egypt.

king of the North. Antiochus III.

defeated At Raphia in 217.

8.      Daniel 11:12 slaughter many thousands. The historian Polybius records that Antiochus lost nearly 10,000 infantrymen at Raphia.

9.      Daniel 11:14 king of the South. Ptolemy V Epiphanes(203-181 B.C.) of Egypt.

10.  violent men among your own people, Jews who joined the forces of Antiochus.

11.  without success The Ptolemaic general Scopas crushed the rebellion in 200,

12.  Daniel 11:15 fortified city. The Mediterranean port of Sidon :

13.  Daniel 11:16 The invader. Antiochus, who was in control of Palestine by 197 B.C.

14.  Daniel 11:17 he will give him a daughter in marriage. Antiochus gave his daughter Cleopatra I in marriage to Ptolemy V 194 B.C.

15.  Daniel 11:18 he. Antiochus.

coast lands. Asia Minor and perhaps also mainland Greece.

commander. The Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, who defeated Antiochus It Magnesia in Asia Minor in 190 B.C.

16.  Daniel 11:19 stumble and fall. Antiochus died in 187 B.C. while attempting to plunder a temple in the province of Elymais.

17.  Daniel 11:20 His successor. Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 B.C.), son and successor of Antiochus the Great.

tax collector. Seleucus's finance minister, Heliodorus.

he will be destroyed. Seleucus was the victim of a conspiracy engineered by Heliodorus.

18.  Daniel 11:21 contemptible person. Seleucus's younger brother, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (I 75-164 B.C.).

19.  not been given the honor of royalty. Antiochus seized power while the rightful heir to the throne, the son of Seleucus (later to become Demetrius 1), was still very young. kingdom. Syro-Palestine.

20.  Daniel 11:22 prince of the covenant. Either the high priest Onias III, who was murdered in 170 B.C., or, if the Hebrew for this phrase is translated "confederate prince," Ptolemy VI Philometor (181-146) of Egypt.

21.  Daniel 11:23 he. Antiochus.

22.  Daniel 11:24 richest provinces. Either of Palestine or of Egypt. fortresses. In Egypt.

23.  Daniel 11:25 king of the South. Ptolemy VI.

24.  Daniel 11:26 his army. That of Ptolemy.

25.  Daniel 11:27 two kings. Antiochus and Ptolemy, who was living in Antiochus's custody.

26.  Daniel 11:28 against the holy covenant. In 169 B.C. Antiochus plundered the temple in Jerusalem, set up a garrison there -A massacred many Jews in the city.

27.  Daniel 11:30 Ships of the western coast lands. Roman vessels under the command of Popilius Laenas.

those who forsake the holy covenant Apostate Jews (see also v. 32).

28.  Daniel 11:31 abomination that causes desolation. See 9:27; 12:1 1; the altar to the pagan god Zeus Olympius, set up in 168 B.C. by Antiochus Epiphanes and prefiguring a similar abomination that Jesus predicted would be erected (see note on Mt 24:15; see also Lk 21:20).

29.  Daniel 11:33 Those who are wise. The godly leaders of the Jewish resistance movement, also called the Hasidim.

fall by the sword or be burned or captured or plundered See Heb 11:36-38.

30.  Daniel 11:34 a little help. The early successes of the guerrilla uprising (168 B.C.) that originated in Modein, 17 miles northwest of Jerusalem, under the leadership of Mattathias and his son Judas Maccabeus. In December, 165, the altar of the temple was rededicated.

31.  Daniel 11:35 time of the end See v.40;12:4,9. Daniel concludes his predictions about Antiochus Epiphanes and begins to prophesy concerning the more distant future.

32.  Daniel 11:36 From here to the end of ch. 11 the Antichrist (see notes on 7:8; 9:27) is in view. The details of this section do not fit what is known of Antiochus Epiphanes. See 2Th 2:4; cf. Rev 13:5-8.

33.  Daniel 11:37 the one desired by women. Usually interpreted as either Tammuz (see note on Eze 8:14) or the Messiah. 11:40-45 Conflicts to be waged between the Antichrist and his political enemies. He will meet his end at the "beautiful holy mountain" (v. 45), Jerusalem's temple mount, doubtless in connection with the battle of Armageddon (Rev 16:13-16).

 

 

For more from Discover the Book Ministries, please visit  discoverthebook.org.