Armenia, the first nation to become Christian during the Roman era, called its capitol of Ani, the "city of a 1,001 churches," but beginning in 1071 AD, Muslim Turks invaded, making Christians second-class citizens called "dhimmi" and forcing boys to convert and serve in the Muslim army as "Janissaries." When the Ottoman Empire declined in the 1880's, Greeks, Serbs and Romanians won independence, but Armenia was trapped by Sultan Abdul Hamid, who killed 100,000. During World War I, three generals, called "Young Turks," killed over a million men, women and children, marching them into deserts, throwing them off cliffs or burning them alive. Armenian cities of Kharpert, Van and Ani were leveled. Russia came to their aid till the Bolshevik revolution began. Armenia's pleas at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference led President Wilson in a failed effort to make Armenia a U.S. protectorate. Woodrow Wilson, who was born DECEMBER 28, 1856, told Congress, May 24, 1920: "The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations has established the truth of the reported massacres and other atrocities from which the Armenian people have suffered... Sympathy for Armenia among our people has sprung from untainted consciences, pure Christian faith and an earnest desire to see Christian people everywhere succored in their time of suffering."